THE FAILED ESCHATLOGICAL JESUS OF THE LIBERALS, MORMONS,
JEHOVAH’S WITNESSES AND THE DATE-SETTING “HOLY SPIRIT LED” EVANGELICALS
When I was a student at The Master’s College, our instructor invited a Mormon apologist to come in for an informal debate and answer our questions. One of the first questions in the class revolved around attacking the Mormon proposition that the Bible, The Book of Mormon, and The Pearl of Great Price are all authoritative, trustworthy and cannot contradict each other. Someone thought they would be clever in pointing out that the “prophets” of the Mormon’s (like the JW’s) have predicted Christ would return in their lifetimes and in their generation but it never happened. Therefore, the “prophets” of the Mormon cult and the JW’s cult were false prophets and their sources of inspiration and authority could not be trusted. Unfortunately, neither the class nor the instructor was ready for his answer – “Well, supposing this is true, how is this any different from Jesus and the NT authors and prophets predicting that the second coming would take place in some of their lifetimes and in their generation?” You could have heard a pin drop!
After class I asked him if I could come over to his home and discuss these issues with him further. His eyes lit up and you could tell he thought he had won a convert. It turned out to be a long night for him as I reasoned from the Scriptures that the Church is not in the “last days” and that indeed Christ came when and how He predicted and thus Jesus and the NT authors and prophets were true and not false prophets like his “Jesus” and “inspired prophets.”
Kenneth Gentry in WSTTB and in some recent anti-preterist articles off of the Internet has sought to make parallels between the alleged unorthodox position of preterism with that of being a Mormon. These men claim that preterists are not Christians. However, if the truth would be told, there are more parallels between the serious implications of futurism with that of Mormonism than anything else. Does the futurist Jesus pass the test case of a Biblical prophet sent to Israel in Deuteronomy 18? If the Church is still in the “last days,” Christ hasn’t returned, and the Great Commission hasn’t been fulfilled, why don’t the authors of WSTTB and other futurists still speak in tongues and why would the revelatory gift of prophecy have ceased today (Acts 2; 1 Cor. 13:8-12; Mt. 28:18-20/Mrk. 16:15-20)? At least the last days cults are more consistent than “orthodox” futurists and Charismatics on this point. I also see a parallel between Mormons and futurists when it comes to a preterist who knows His Bible and begins asking Scriptural questions. Like the Mormon, the futurist runs for the hills. And then there is the parallel issue of setting up un-inspired writings on par with the authority of Scripture. Some Reformed theologians have practically set the Westminister Confession of Faith on par with Scripture itself claiming like the Roman Catholic Church that their creeds and confessions of faith are “infallibly certain.” There are some serious implications of those who argue this way.
What follows is an old article of mine which deals with how Liberals and skeptics of Christianity have sought to refute the claims of Evangelicals and Reformed theologians the same way that my apologetics class sought to refute Mormonism. I will address the Liberal Jesus and also expose the false predictions of the “last days” cults and the claims of their allegedly “inspired” “prophets.” We will also need to take a serious and realistic look at the “Holy Spirit led” teachings of many date setting Evangelicals and the implications of any futuristic eschatological view that (out of ignorance or not,) may not be upholding and defending faithfully the integrity of Christ’s teachings and the infallibility of the Scriptures as they are called to.
By the unbelieving and liberal skeptic it has been stated that Jesus “failed” and was “mistaken” in His promises to return in the lifetime and generation of His contemporaries. A Hebrew rabbi writes,
“At first, Christians expected that this “second coming” would come very shortly… in their lifetime. When their prayer was not answered… …the early Christians were forced to radically alter the Jewish concept of the Messiah in order to explain Jesus’ failure.”
The professing ‘atheist’, Bertrand Russell gave the following reason why he was not a Christian,
“He (Jesus) certainly thought that His second coming would occur in clouds of glory before the death of all the people who were living at that time. There are a great many texts that prove that and there are a lot of places where it is quite clear that He believed that His coming would happen during the lifetime of many then living.”
“It still looks as though a monstrous illusion lies at the basis of the whole mission of Jesus, the illusion of something immediately impending which actually never has come to pass.”
“He (Jesus) also proclaimed the imminent arrival on earth of the Kingdom of God – a Golden Age for Jews. This proclamation turned out to be an error”
“Of course, Jesus was mistaken in thinking that the world was destined to come to an end.” And again, “Jesus expectation of the near end of the world turned out to be an illusion.”
A modern day liberal whom I have challenged to a debate and who declined my invitation – Dale C. Allison Jr., states that “conservative critics’ need to “acknowledge the humiliating discovery that Jesus proclaimed the divinely wrought near end of the world.”
The Lord has given these men over to their confusion. Some of these modern liberals still try to hang on to some kind or form of Christianity while others are simply but “scholarly” confused and have grown cynical. For example, Clayton Sullivan and Allison write,
“…Jesus, mistaken proclaimer of the Kingdom of God, carries a comforting implication: belief accuracy or doctrinal rectitude is not a prerequisite for divine approval”
“The truth, however, is like God: we can run from it, but it is always there. I, myself do not know what to make of the eschatological Jesus. I am, for theological reasons, unedified by the thought that, in a matter so seemingly crucial, a lie has been walking around for two thousand years while the truth has only recently put on its shoes. But there it is.”
The “truth” being the alleged discovery that this mistaken and purely
“…human Jesus, is just like one of us, one who holds values that are very close to our ideological commitments, a Jesus who is a social reformer and who attacks patriarchal orders, a Jesus who, as a real human person, can stand as an example and inspiration for worthy causes.”
We can sum all of these liberal and skeptical quotes up with the concept that Jesus was just a good moral teacher and “inspiration” to us all, but he wasn’t God like he claimed to be because He was “mistaken” and failed to usher in the kingdom and the end of the world when he promised. However, this purely “human Jesus” these men claim to trust in and have fashioned in their own minds to be a god of sorts, can’t save them from their sins and they won’t find any “comforting implications” in him in this life or in the next!
The error in view here is the conclusion that: 1) Christ did not come within the time frame He promised – the first century Apostolic generation and 2) therefore, Jesus was just a good moral teacher and not God like He claimed to be and is. In the articles I have written on my site I have refuted these blasphemous statements and vain imaginations of Christ being a “failure” and “mistaken” in His promises to return in the lifetime and generation of the apostles.
2) THE MORMON FAILED ESCHATOLOGICAL JESUS
FALSE PROPHECIES OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS, OR “MORMONS” CONCERNING THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST:
In the Doctrine and Covenants, 84:4-5 Joseph Smith received a supposed “divine revelation” on September 22 & 23, 1832 that reads,
“Verily, this is the word of the Lord, that the city New Jerusalem shall be built by the gathering of the saints, beginning at this place, even the place of the temple, which temple shall be reared in this generation. For verily this generation shall not all pass away until an house shall be built unto the Lord, and a cloud shall rest upon it, which cloud shall be even the glory of the Lord, which shall fill the house.”
“…My father presented himself,… I asked of him a father’s blessing, which he granted by laying his hands upon my head, in the name of Jesus Christ, and declaring that I should continue in the priest’s office until Christ comes.”
Likewise, when the twelve “Apostles” were first ordained in the Mormon “church,” some of them as well received this special promise that they would live until Christ came:
“The blessing of Lyman E. Johnson was,… that he shall live until the gathering is accomplished,… and he shall see the Savior come and stand upon the earth with power and great glory.”
“He (William Smith) shall be preserved and remain on the earth, until Christ shall come to take vengeance on the wicked.”
Following the “revelations” that Christ would return in the lifetime of Joseph Smith and some of his “Apostles”; the timing of “this generation” (D&C 84:4-5, 31) became even more specific:
“I prophecy [sic] in the name of the Lord God- and let it be written: that the Son of Man will not come in the heavens until I am 85 years old, 48 years hence or about 1890.”
“…it was the will of God that those who went to Zion, with a determination to lay down their lives, if necessary, should be ordained to the ministry, and go forth to prune the vineyard for the last time, or the coming of the Lord, which was nigh- even fifty-six years should wind up the scene.” (Ibid., History of the Church, Vol. 2, 182).
Thus the dates 1890 and 1891were set! In 1838 “Apostle” Parley P. Pratt stated,
“I will state as a prophecy [sic], that there will not be an unbelieving Gentile upon this continent 50 years hence; and if they are not greatly scourged, and in a great measure over-thrown, within five or ten years from this date, then the Book of Mormon will have proven itself false.”
Of course this “prophecy” being the embarrassment that it is to the LDS church has been conveniently deleted from any modern version of the writings of Parley P. Pratt. Forty-five years later he commented on D&C 84:4-6,31 stating,
“….suffice it to say that the people living in 1832, when the revelation was given, will not all pass away; there will be some living when the house spoken of will be reared, on which the glory of God will rest.”
We must remember that Mr. Pratt was supposedly given the specific charge earlier in his life to “prophesy” about the Lord’s return, “Therefore prophesy, and it shall be given by the power of the Holy Ghost” (D&C 34:10).
Even after Joseph Smith and his “Apostles” died and Christ did not come in 1890 or 1891, instead of repenting of these false prophecies that Christ would return in the lifetime and generation of Joseph Smith and his “apostles”, the LDS church blindly but willfully continued making such statements in their conference reports such as,
“Many of these young men and maidens that are here today will, in my opinion, if they are faithful, stand in the flesh when Christ comes in the clouds of heaven.”
“I believe it will come in the very day when some of us who are here today will be living upon the face of the earth. That day is close at handÎ [emphasis MJS] (Joseph Fielding Smith, Conference Report, April, 1936, 75-76).
“We are living in the dispensation and generation to which Jesus referred…” (Wilford Woodruff, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 14, 5).
We also find the Mormons doing what the Jehovah Witnesses do when their predictions don’t come to pass concerning the phrase “this generation”, in that they are forced to contradict earlier statements and “prophecies”, or just keep on STRETCHING the meaning of “this generation” out!!! Sensing a major problem in 1890 when Christ wasn’t coming as Joseph Smith prophesied that He would, the 1890 D&C edition carried a footnote that claimed a generation could be longer than a hundred years. This of course cannot be substantiated from the Bible. But we have now even surpassed the longest generation in The Book of Mormon, 4Nephi 18 which was claimed to have lasted 110 years. Even if we said Smith’s “prophecy” in 1832 (see D&C 84:4-5,31) was referring to babies born on that very day, this would bring us to 163 years and counting! A generation according to the Bible and other cultures is a period of 30-40 years. Jesus promised to return in the generation and lifetime of some of His Apostles (Peter, James, John, etc…) and not in Joseph Smith’s or our lifetimes and generation! To conclude, I will direct the LDS reader to a statement made by Smith himself,
“The only way of ascertaining a true prophet is to compare his prophecies with the ancient Word of God, and see if they agree, and if they do and come to pass, then certainly he is a true prophet… when, therefore any man, no matter who, or how high his standing may be, utters, or publishes, anything that afterwards proves to be untrue, he is a false prophet” (Joseph Fielding Smith, Answers 4:81-82).
Well, Joseph Smith’s “prophecies” concerning the second coming of Christ have not come to pass, and have been proven to be untrue. Therefore, according to Joseph Smith himself, his teaching do not “agree” with “the ancient Word of God,” namely Jesus’ teaching! Thus according to their own founder, Joseph Smith himself was not a “true prophet” and the LDS “church” with their alleged “elders” and “prophets” are truly a NON-PROPHET ORGANIZATION!
3) THE JEHOVAH’S WITNESSES FAILED ESCHATOLOGICAL JESUS
FALSE PROPHECIES OF THE JEHOVAH’S WITNESSES, THE WATCHTOWER:
“was not one man but a body of men and women. It was the small group of footstep followers of Jesus Christ known at that time as International Bible Students. Today they are known as Jehovah’s Christian witnesses. They are still proclaiming a warning…” (The Watchtower, 4/1/72 p.197). This source claims to make their “declaration… under angelic direction and support.”
“the nations will see the fulfillment of what these witnesses say as directed from heaven” (The Watchtower, 4/1/72, 200). And states, “Of course it is easy to say that this group acts as a “prophet” of God. It is another thing to prove it. The only way that this can be done is to review the record” (The Watchtower 4/1/1972, 197).
“Unless we are in touch with this channel of communication that God is using, we will not progress along the road to life, no matter how much Bible reading we do” (The Watchtower, 12/1/81 27).
Well, when one takes the time to “review the record” of the Watchtowers “prophecies,” it is clear that “the nations” did not “see the fulfillment of what these witnesses said as directed from heaven” in the years 1874, 1878, 1886, 1910-12, 1914, 1915, 1918, 1925, and 1975. Just one example will suffice,
“There is no reason for changing the figures; they are God’s dates, not ours; 1914 is not the date for the beginning, but the end!” (The Watchtower, 7/15/1894, 1677).
Instead of repenting they did change the figures and actually tried to cover themselves in late 1914,
We did not say positively that this would be the year” (The Watchtower, 11/1/1914, 5565).
However, one cannot get more “positive” than claiming “they are God’s dates, not ours”!
False Prophecies about “This Generation”
Of the “this generation” spoken of by Jesus in (Matthew 24:34) that would witness the fulfillment of His return, they have claimed that,
“the evidence points to the 1914 generation as the generation spoken of by Jesus. Thus, “this generation will by no means pass away until all these things (including the apocalypse) occur” (The Watchtower, 2/15/86, 5).
“Most importantly, this magazine builds confidence in the Creator’s promise of a peaceful and secure New Order before the generation that saw the events of 1914 passes away.”
“Jesus was obviously speaking about those who were old enough to witness with understanding what took place,” in 1914 stating that these would be “youngsters 15 years of age.” (Awake!, 10/8/68 p. 13).
“If Jesus used ‘generation’ in that sense and we apply it to 1914, then the babies of that generation are now 70 years old or older.” (The Watchtower, 5/15/84 p. 5).
For an organization that claims to be a “prophet” and is supposedly guided by “angelic direction” to be wrong in its “declaration” of prophecies, is a fatal mistake and one to be taken seriously. For the Word of God says, “But the prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die. And if thou say in thine heart, How shall we know the word which Jehovah hath not spoken? When a prophet speaketh in the name of Jehovah, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which Jehovah hath not spoken, but the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously: thou shalt not be afraid of him.” (Deut. 18:20-22). This false religious system is likewise a truly NON-PROPHET ORGANIZATION and nothing more.
4) THE FAILED ESCHATOLOGICAL JESUS OF EVANGELICALS
Unfortunately, the stretching out of Jesus’ teaching concerning “this generation” isn’t just something which takes place within the last days cults. Self proclaimed Holy Spirit “led” Evangelicals such as Hal Lindsey, Chuck Smith and Jon Courson have been guilty as well.
One of my former Pastors as a new believer (Chuck Smith of Calvary Chapel), followed Hal Lindsey’s prophetic calculations, and wrote that he believed,
“…that the generation of 1948 is the last generation. Since a generation of judgment is forty years and the Tribulation period lasts seven years, I believe the Lord could come back for His Church any time before the Tribulation starts, which would mean any time before 1981. (1948 + 40 – 7 = 1981).”
Smith has a history of this kind of sensationalistic manipulation,
“In Chuck Smith’s Revelation commentary Dateline Earth he informed his readers in 1989 that “the rapture is at hand.” Earlier he wrote, “Very soon there are going to be some strange and terrible things happening on this planet of ours.” These “very soon” happenings are based on his reading of Revelation. He reinforces this claim when he argues emphatically, “Jesus is coming back, and He’s coming back soon.” In his book The Final Curtain, he writes, “It is later than you think. It is time to wake up from your lethargy and realize that the coming of the Lord is at hand.”
For “prophecy teachers” like Chuck Smith and Hal Lindsey, the rapture or second coming is only really imminent for our generation whom allegedly witnessed the “super sign” of the Jews returning to their land in 1948. This event was allegedly a fulfillment of OT prophecy. When Smith says Jesus is coming “soon” he means it literally, but somehow when the NT authors claim this, we shouldn’t interpret these time texts so literally! In 1997, Lindsey wanted to keep a good thing going for his book sales so once again he started claiming that through his prayers, the Holy Spirit was giving him special insights into the Book of Revelation in order “to crack the Apocalypse Code.” Apparently, these were insights only recently given to the Church through him of course. Lindsey claims God had not given previous generations the insights he had been given that related to the issue of imminence because the time of fulfillment was only now drawing near for us.
Jon Courson is another very influencial Calvary Chapel Pastor who instead of exposing Lindsey’s and Smith’s false predictions, decided he wanted to get into the prophetic game too and see if he could salvage the system. He admits,
“1981 came. So did 1982, ’83, ’84, ’85, and ’86. And then something began to happen. A whole bunch of radical Christians began to cool off, saying, “Maybe we’re here for a while after all. Maybe we shouldn’t be so committed to this kingdom thing.” Oh, they didn’t say it in those exact words, but that’s what they were thinking. And a dulling of expectancy swept over our generation.”
Courson decided Jesus’ “this generation” prediction was actually a period of 51 years and not 40, so 1999 became the new target date,
“Thus, scripturally, there is validity for a Biblical generation to be 51.4 years.” (Ibid., 179).
Another allegedly Holy Spirit led teaching that corresponds to the notion that we are the terminal “this generation” that Jesus said would witness His coming, is the prophetic scheme of such men as Grant Jeffrey,
“We could look for the beginning of the seventh day (the Millennium—a thousand years of peace, Revelation 20:2-6) to commence in the fall of the year 2000 on the fifteenth of Tishri, the first day of the Geast of Tabernacles—exactly two thousand years from Christ’s birth.”
This view teaches that a day =’s a 1,000 years and thus the following prophetic equation emerges: 4,000 years (the earth’s alleged age) + 2,000 years (since the time of Christ) =’s the earths age nearing 6,000. Therefore, many prophecy pundits speculated and continue to speculate that sometime around A.D. 2000 Christ would or still will return and propel the earth into a literal Sabbath/millennial rest. This rest is allegedly accomplished with Christ’s return to establish his reign in literal Jerusalem for another literal 1,000 years as allegedly taught in Revelation 20. In the Jon Courson’s Application Commentary Courson continues the date setting tradition of Lindsey and Smith and not only predicts the year 1999 as Christ’s return, but also adds a day =’s 1,000 years calculation as well. Here are some selective quotes,
“When is the seven thousandth year? When will Christ return? Thus, the calculation is complete:
Adam is created
The coming of Jesus Christ
Israel goes through hard times
Israel revived during millennium
I am not alone in this interpretation.” “God’s week of human history is rapidly coming to completion. The return of Christ is nigh. I believe you who are in your teens and early twenties are very possibly the last generation. Set your heart on things above. Live for heaven. Seek first the kingdom, and you will be happy presently, rewarded eternally, and grateful constantly. You who are older, continue setting an example for us who are younger. Continue to make the Lord top priority in your life. We’re looking to you in a very real sense. Please keep the fire hot. Fellow baby boomers, we need to realize that Jesus Christ is coming soon. We don’t have time to play around. We don’t have time to chase worldly pursuits any longer. We need to return to ministry and service, worship and prayer, Bible study and street witnessing. Whatever it was you used to do when you were fired up about Jesus in the ’70s, do it again. Maranatha!”
In Smith’s foreword to Courson’s work, he likens these kind of statements to being “Holy Spirit led” teachings. He actually parallels Jon Courson’s teaching methods with the sound teaching methods of Nehemiah who’s instruction,
“brought great conviction upon the people and a genuine turning to God. The ultimate result was that the people went their way rejoicing because they understood the words that were declared unto them.” And writes, “I am convinced that you also will go your way rejoicing after reading the insights that the Holy Spirit has given to Jon on the scriptures.” (Ibid., Smith’s Foreword).
But Christians don’t go away “rejoicing” after listening to these false “Holy Spirit led” prophets, but rather go away in total disillusionment and their faith “dulled” and on ice—as admitted by Courson himself! Instead of repenting, these “prophecy experts” just reformulate their prophetic calculations and continue to stretch out the meaning of “this generation” just like the last days cults of the Mormons and Jehovah’s Witnesses. This is the main “distinctive” of the “growth” and “success” of these cults, and is the same and main “distinctive” to the “growth” of the Calvary Chapel movement – selah.
These men began claiming Jesus’ “this generation” was ours (1948 – 1988) and set dates for the pre-trib “rapture” in 1981. Then Jon Courson claimed a Biblical generation could and should be considered 51 years, thus marking the year 1999 to be the time for the “rapture.” Lindsey has now changed his view of what a generation is. He began claiming it was “something like forty years” but now claims it can be 60 – 80 years! When will it end? There has been no fruitful repentance coming from these men and they should not desire to preach or teach God’s people until they understand the fundamentals of the first century imminent timing of Jesus’ teaching on the Kingdom, and the spiritual “within” nature of it as well (Luke 21:22-32/Luke 17:20-37). I have challenged them to a public debate as well, and it has gone unanswered. I attended Calvary Chapel of Costa Mesa, CA and would welcome any Calvary Chapel Pastor to a public debate over their false eschatology. But they are too “loving” and “spiritual” to debate and give an account for their false teachings! I would also like to debate one of my former teachers in apologetics from Calvary Chapel Bible College – John Weldon, to a debate on this subject as well.
CONCLUSION – THE “FAITHFUL AND TRUE” JESUS OF SOVEREIGN GACE PRETERISM
Jesus is described in the book of Revelation as the “Faithful and True Witness” and He returned in the lifetime and generation of the first century church as promised (cf. Matthew 10:22-23; 16:27-28; 24:27-34; 26:64; Revelation 3:11, 14, 20:6-7, 10-12, 20).
I defend that “this generation” (Gk. genea) means the contemporary generation of Jesus and the first century disciples as it is used everywhere in the NT.
I hold to the historic orthodox (straight) view of the Church which has taught BOTH of these propositions and interpretations of Matthew 24:27-31, 34:
- This is Christ’s one and final second coming event and general resurrection (classic Amillennialism) AND that
- This coming and gathering of Christ happened in a non-literal way in AD 70ff. (partial preterism).
- This coming of Jesus in the Olivet Discourse is the same coming of the Lord as is found in 2 Peter 3 and Revelation 21-22 and is the one and final second coming event (classic Amillennialism). And
- That this coming of Christ is a reference to the dissolving of the “elements” of the Old Covenant World in AD 70 (partial preterism of John Owen, John Lightfoot, etc.).
- This coming of Jesus in the Olivet discourse is the same one and final coming of Jesus as described by the Apostle Paul (ie. the same “trumpet” “coming” of Christ “with His angels,” in judgment, and the “end”) as described for us in 1 Thessalonians 4-5 and 1 Corinthians 15 (classic Amillennialism).
- I also affirm that the trumpet coming of Jesus in Matthew 24 was fulfilled in Jesus’ “this generation” (partial preterist view).
There have been partial preterist apologists such as R.C. Sproul and Hank Hanegraaff that have sought to teach that the imminent time texts in the NT were fulfilled in AD 70; but their view falls apart when they try and defend that there are two comings of Jesus in the NT (one in AD 70 and another allegedly at the end of time). Allegedly, Christ is to come and bring about a biological resurrection for Christians at the end of time. This compromised view has been demonstrated to be creedally arbitrary and holding to an inconsistent hermeneutic. The judgment and resurrection of the dead were also imminent events to take place in the first century (Acts 17:31YLT/WEY/ WUESTNT, Acts 24:15, 25YLT/WEY; Romans 8:18YLT/WEY; 1 Peter 4:5-7, 17; Revelation 1:1ßà22:6-7, 10-12, 20).
Any other eschatological and apologetic position than the Biblical Sovereign Grace Full Preterist view, ends up portraying Christ as a failure and a false prophet who didn’t come, judge, raise the dead, and bring an end to the old world and usher in a new one–as promised. Perhaps this is why Richard Pratt has sought to interpret the prophetic text case of Deuteronomy 18 in a most unusual way (WSTTB, 122ff.)? These men may be well intentioned Christians, but the exegetical facts remain–their Jesus is a Jesus who did not accomplish what He said He would do, WHEN He said He would do it – selah. Thankfully, most Christians who believe in the deity of Christ, are often ignorant of (and do not embrace willfully) the implications of their false eschatology. But reader, you are no longer ignorant of the implications of the failed futurist Jesus. Therefore, I am confident that God will continue to lead His Sheep when His voice is calling through a sound exegesis of His Word, and will strive to “continue in doctrine” for the saving of their souls and those who listen and read their teachings.
 Pinchas Stolper,.ed. The Real Messiah (Reprinted from Jewish Youth, June 1973, Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregation. New York: 1973, pp. 32-33).
 Bertrand Russell, Why I Am Not a Christian (New York: Simon and Scheuster, 1957)16.
 Martin Debelius, Jesus (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1939). Trans. C.B. Hedrich & F.C. Grant (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1949).
 Clayton Sullivan, Rethinking Realized Eschatology, p. 118.
 Bultmann, Primitive Christianity in its Contemporary Setting. (Trans. by R.H. Fuller, Cleveland, Ohio: William Collins Publisher, Inc. , 1956), 92.
 Rudolf Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament, Vol. 1, pp. 22).
 Sullivan, Clayton, Rethinking Realized Eschatology, (Mercer University Press: 1988), 118.
 Ibid. 191.
 Since the last six words of this “prophecy” have been TAKEN OUT by the LDS, I have cited the original source taken from Smith’s diary, March 10, 1843 through July 14, 1843.
 Orson Pratt, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 19, p.215, Dec. 9, 1877.
 Chuck Smith, End Times, The Word for Today, 1978, 35.
 Gary DeMar, Chuck Smith’s Prophetic Confusion http://www.americanvision.org/articlearchive2007/11-20-07.asp www.americanvision.org/ emphasis added.
 Hal Lindsey, Apocalypse Code, back cover, p. 38, 1997, quoted by Hank Hanegraaff, THE APOCALYPSE CODE, p. xvi, Thomas Nelson, Pub., 2007.
 Courson, Jon: Jon Courson’s Application Commentary. Nashville, TN : Thomas Nelson, 2003, S. 179,
 Francis X. Gumerlock, the Day and the Hour Christianity’s Perennial Fascination with Predicting the End of the World, pp. 319-322, American Vision Pub., 2000.
 Ibid., Jon Courson’s Application Commentary, 179. (bold emphasis added).